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Neo-Darwinism breaks down when faced with the immense complexity of the organic structures discussed in this paper. The "absurd theory of chance" (J. von Uexküll) is an entirely inadequate attempt to explain this complexity as evidenced by the several mathematical investigations by the authors cited. - When dealing with problems in textbooks and discussions, the followers of neo-Darwinism frequently remain silent on the subject of co-adaptation, - the problem that presents its greatest difficulty. - Because its method of explanation can only be applied linearly and not to a network of hundreds of anatomical structures and their physiological functions which are precisely attuned to one another, the principles of neo-Darwinism have proved completely unsatisfactory in relation to the co-adaptation problem. - The co-adaptation problem requires that many random mutations on a whole chain of different genetic sites (according to Prof. Klein more than sixthousand genes), e.g. the numerous structures in the eye, optical nerve, optic chiasm, brain, muscles etc. have to operate in a precisely defined direction simultaneously and all working to the same end. We find here multiple co-adaptation: on the one hand at the inner and outer structures of the eye itself, then the interaction between eye and brain, together with the eye-muscles with the control-centre in the mid-brain (mesencephalon) and finally with the various centres for regulation and integration in the brain with their correlations to the organism and its environment.

Furthermore, this improbable process of chance is supposed to have repeated itself seven times and each independently of the others - if facet-eyes (ommatidia) are included, twelve times! In the endeavour to make the chance theory acceptable to the reader, the neo-Darwinist first deals with the perfection of the isolated component, using variation and selection as the operative factors as if they could do absolutely everything and eventually 'calling on time', "this factor about which we can do so little, and which for that reason serves so well to hide phantasms" (J.H. Fabre). - However this hide-and-seek with 'big numbers' is now mathematically comprehensible and can be analytically simulated on a computer. The result for Darwinism is equal to zero. - The art of persuasion as practised by Charles Darwin was, at least for the biological knowledge of his time, supreme to genial, but it does not change the facts anymore than the best pleading of the greatest defence council in a murder case can bring the corpse back to life. Occasionally the neo-Darwinist perhaps suspects that "the most primitive forms of stupidity and brutality" ("Urdummheit und Urbrutalität", A. Neuhäuser on chance-mutation and destruction of the "weaker" in the sense of natural selection) are inadequate answers to the question of origin, even when long epochs of time are involved. So, he implies the theory of evolution in the grades variety of biological forms and then, when dealing with physical causes, he tends to simplify the complicated biological relationships.

When dealing with the question of the origin of organic structures the following must be considered:

The same principles of construction and function as occur in the cybernetic systems in technology are found in the kind of linkage and interplay in organisms. "It is entirely irrelevant, whether the finished structure works with steel, springs and oil, or, with bones, muscles and blood: the principle of construction remains the same" (Nachtigall 1971). We therefore have an unequivocal case for comparison. Of systems that in principle are comparable we know how they come into existence and how not: they never come into existence by "chance" (definition pp. 15/16), but exclusively through consciousness, purposefully working intelligence and genius. Using experience as yardstick shows clearly that consciousness, intelligence and genius are absolutely necessary as the cause for the origin of the information for the design of the immensely complicated organic structures, which are so marvellously attuned to the highest precision.

Inorganic matter also shows all the features of design e.g. periodic system of elements, gravitation, Kepler's laws, quantum mechanics etc. Accordingly it is evident that the Creator of all these laws Himself must exist apart from the matter created be Him.

°If based on facts, a pinch of spicy polemics can be like the effect of salt on a soup. Supersensitivity would indicate uncertainly.

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© 2002 by Wolf-Ekkehard Lönnig - loennig@mpiz-koeln.mpg.de